Saturday, August 31, 2019

Audre Lorde Hanging Fire: Anxiety of a Teenager Essay

The dominant emotion in the poem Hanging Fire by Audre Lorde is anxiety. This is the poem about the uncertainty of a girl in her maturity, who longs for adult guidance. The author uses several examples of imagery in the poem, but the most notable of them is the repetition – anxious repetition. The narrator in the poem is the fourteen-year old girl, who is worried about many things in her life, one of them is the color of her skin. This is a very important issue among the teenagers. In this case, the girl states that her skin â€Å"betrayed† her (Lorde 521). The repetition of girl’s thoughts is quite evident, and her tone of anxiety is thus conveyed to the reader. These thoughts are inherent to many teens, when they are concerned about the way of their awkward dancing, and that they have â€Å"nothing to wear† (Lorde 521). These thoughts of anxiety are intertwined with the narrator’s reference to momma, who is behind the closed door. This is a great depiction by the author of the unavailability of the mother to the teenager. The reader understands that the mother of the narrator does not care about her. The closed door is depicted literally (the door is closed) and figuratively (the mother is not open to her daughter). The repetition makes the emotion of anxiety so powerful, making a strong emphasis on that. This may be explained by the difficult relationship of Lorde with her mother. The narrator seems alone in this world, and the repetition about death expresses her worries about being unnecessary to anybody. Repetition clearly demonstrates to the reader the hard fate of the girl, who wants to convey that she needs someone around her so badly that those people do not even realize. Work Cited Lorde, Audre. The Collected Poems of Audre Lorde. New York, NY: Norton, 2000. Print.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Level 5 Diploma in Leadership for Health and Social Essay

   Review the range of groups and individuals whose communication needs must be addressed in own job role. In my role as Team Leader with Deputising Responsibilities, I have a wide variety of people and organizations with whom I must communicate. On a day to day basis I must meet the communication needs of the service users, with whom I would ordinarily use a relaxed and informal tone and, in some cases, short words and phrases to simplify my language. At the moment, all of our service users are fully verbal in their communications so no Makaton is required. When dealing with management, CQC, other agencies, professionals and parents or family, I would use a more sophisticated level of language but often find myself simplifying things here as well as there is a very wide range of understanding within this group. In all aspects of language (verbal, written, body, and facial) and with all interactions I need to be very conscious of matters of confidentiality and insure that I do not give out information that is not specifically sanctioned for dissemination to the particular audience in ques tion. Explain how to support effective communication within own job role. In my role it is important to develop and maintain good interpersonal relationships with everyone that I deal with; this provides a substrate for all levels of communication. One of the ways that I support others to maintain effective communication at my workplace is by providing easy access to, and easy to use, template documents for staff to use when they have information that needs to be passed on. I listen to staff needs in this area and this has helped to keep the system simple and accessible. Maintaining a feeling of unity between the shifts also helps to promote good communication from one day to the next. When dealing with staff, I try to use language  that makes them feel supported and part of a team. In some cases, it is necessary to simplify language for those staff that have English as a second language. It is also important to support these members of staff when asking them to prepare written reports or documents as extra help may be needed. In order to ensure good com munication I may ask a service user to tell me what they understood of the things that I have told them or an issue that has been discussed. For some service users I would write down the main points or answers to questions in order to provide a concrete response to an issue that has been a cause of worry, or if they are having difficulty remembering, as a visual reminder. When writing reports for management or other agencies, I try to be succinct and accurate enough to communicate the issues without going in to extraneous detail to unnecessarily lengthen documents. Analyse the barriers and challenges to communication within own job role. Within my own job role, there are many issues that prove to be obstacles to clear communication. Time pressures often mean that one issue arises before the previous one has been successfully concluded and documented. The service users often want staff support for the full number of hours that they are allocated and have no understanding that this time must include paperwork such as writing records of conversation or case file documents that are essential for other staff to be able to work effectively with them. The demands of confidentiality can also provide obstacles where some information may help one party to understand the issues being experienced by another party, but it is not appropriate or acceptable to share that information. The number of sources of information can also be a barrier to all of the information being shared between staff i.e., notice board, log book, communications book, staff folders, emails, diaries, records of conversation/observation, handover book, etc. W hen starting a shift, some staff may find it difficult to access the relevant information before their service user wants their support to commence. Evaluate the effectiveness of existing communication systems and practices. As a service that has been open just over a year, we are still refining the methods and systems of communication within the service for internal staff communications. There are several sources of information (as detailed above) where various types of information are held. The day-to-day information is passed from one team to another via the Team to Team Daily Handover book which is the first place to look when commencing a shift. This document then directs the team coming on shift to any other important documents relating to the events of the previous shift and this is working well at the moment. The information specific to each service user is kept in a Case File folder, the format of which has changed several times over the last year and this has lead to a considerable amount of work for team leaders and keyworkers, but this should lead to an effective and much more user friendly format in the future. We have also created one page summaries for each service user so that new staff o r agency workers can quickly familiarise themselves with the individual that they are about to support. The main obstacle to effective communications, both within the service and externally, is time pressure and the frequency of multiple issues arising concurrently. This makes it difficult for staff to record information fully and accurately and is an area where it is very important that the staff are supported to be able to complete this work. Lack of IT skills also impairs the effectiveness of document filing so staff need frequent reminders of how to title documents so that they are easy to trace from the digital repository. Complex computer systems also leave us with connectivity issue that mean staff and management cannot always access the required server for filing or retrieval so temporary folders are used until connectivity has been restored. This can cause problems if the issue is not resolved before the next shift arrive but can be passed on via the Team to Team book. Our IT systems are being overhauled at the moment. Compare the effectiveness of different communication systems for partnership working When working in partnership with the many external organisations that share the common goal of finding the best support and outcomes for our service users we have several ways of sharing information. Our primary method is  usually email, and this is preferred as it is a clear and traceable system that allows us to track what has been sent to whom, when it was sent, and if a response has been received. We do log phone calls and make written records of the conversation, but these are less concrete as they are only recorded by one side of the conversation and could be disputed. Minuted meetings are a very useful method as this enables professionals to come together and have input that can be acknowledged or disputed in real time and decisions can be agreed upon without the delay of waiting for written responses. This takes time and organisation to schedule at a mutually convenient time for all required parties and is not always practical for those residing at considerable distance fro m the planned meeting. Explain legal and ethical tensions between maintaining confidentiality and sharing information. The Human Rights Act, article 8 states that â€Å"Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence†. The Data Protection Act 1998 governs how we collect, store, share and dispose of information. The sharing of information is an essential part of providing high quality, person centred care and for running an effective service. As a service that holds a considerable amount of data on our residents it is important that we have procedures in place to protect the confidentiality of that information. It is a legal requirement and our moral duty to not share any of this data with individuals, companies or funding authorities that are not directly concerned with the individual in question. Even within our own organisation, we will remove identifiers (names, initials, dates of birth etc) from some documents before we share them with other dep artments and codes are often used to identify service users within documents in order to protect their privacy. There are times, however, when we also have a duty to disclose information about an individual if we know or suspect that a situation could arise where harm is caused to another person or group. In any such case we must decide â€Å"†¦whether the release of information to protect the interests of a third party exceptionally prevails both over the duty of confidence owed to the service user and the public interest in a confidential health and social care service† ( ) This  could include, but is not limited to, the reporting of abuse to protect others from the abuser, or informing the DVLA that a service user is now taking medication that renders them unfit to drive if the service user is refusing to do so themselves. In all cases, an attempt should first be made to gain consent from the indivi dual concerned using communication appropriate to their needs. Analyse the essential features of information sharing agreements within and between organisations An information sharing agreement (ISA) is a set of rules for all involved parties to adhere to when sending, receiving, processing, storing and disposing of data. It should be structured to benefit the service users and they should be confident that their information is being handled in a secure and responsible way. It should be a clear document written in plain language that is easy to understand. The ISA should state why the information is to be shared, the organisations that are involved, the types of information to be shared and how this complies with the Data Protection Act (1998) and the Freedom of Information Act (2000). There should be clear guidance on the amount of information to be shared to guard against irrelevant or excessive information being included. Template documents for requesting and sharing information should be included as this will support the standardisation of data set to ensure information is being recorded consistently across the organisations involved.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Project Managment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Project Managment - Essay Example I will be discussing some salient points relative thereto project management and will also discuss how these key points will contribute to the enhancement and achievement of targeted company goals. The matter will be answered in accordance to the lessons learned from the module of this course which provided us learners the opportunity to work, plan, and manage a project using standard theoretical precepts. Some project management tools and techniques will also be used to introduce a technique in resolving organizational issues and concerns with sensitivity to available budget allocation and dynamics of the organization. In this questionnaire, I am expected to also use the tools for negotiations, teambuilding and quantitative estimation that can be drawn from the lesson using the case presented as my springboard for analysis. 2.0. Introduction Project management refers to the strategic capacity of an organization to put direction and implement programs and projects in accordance to sp ecific goals and objectives set by the company with a purposive end in mind (Lock, 2007). The outcome could either be about gaining profit, about organizational strengthening, attaining performance efficiency or developing a collaborative action with potential partners, venture-interest, or with possible business associates (Dinsmore, & Brewin, 2011). 3.0. Discussion 3.1. Case study Johnsons is a major player in the UK dry cleaning industry. Management has decided to move operations to a new site. The new site will allow Johnsons to expand its operational base by 50% and bid for new public sector contracts. Currently at its site, Johnsons has a capacity to deal with 20,000 kg of laundry. However, management prefers to work at 80% of its capacity. At a recent board meeting, the HR manager has been asked to explain the reason for poor workforce planning and lack of discipline which has reduced the working capacity to 60%. The above information can be used to define various terms. 3.2. Designed Capacity This is the average allowable level of capability, fitness and power of competence in the performance of services. In the case cited, the Johnson Company has a capacity to deal with 20,000 kg of laundry but considering some variables in the organization, e.g. human resource availability, laundry machines, spaces, and resource operational availability. 3.3. Effective Capacity This refers to an organizational design and value chain analysis pertaining to effective capacity management (Capacitas, 2013, p. 1). Often this correlates to the nature of organizational structure, model or framework of operation, the available resources with services, repository of service, information and system of reporting, scope of managerial function, and the training or educational capacity of the company’s human resources (Capacitas, 2013, p. 1). From the cited case, what is clear here is that from its designed capacity, the management agreed that it can only effectively delive r and perform 80% services. From the allowable percentile of work production, the company can only perform or produce services at a rate of 16,000 kg of laundry. It is further unclear, given the many variables, if these 16,000kg constitute the daily laundry operation of the company or in a weekly status or in a month. The case given have not expressly cited the time and days that such 60,000 kg average laundry service is attained. It’s also unclear about the technology that will be used for laundry operation and neither is the case clear

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

On killing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

On killing - Essay Example Grossman has utilized Milgram’s experiment of obedience as his research base. According to Milgram’s findings, humans obey authority and inflict pain on the subject without the rational evidence, but only due to obligatory requirement. Thus, Freud’s intuitive theory of human nature contradicts with this dichotomy, which emphasis that undue submission and pressure by authority evokes rebelliousness in the subordinates (Grossman, p.142). The author also lays an emphasis on the dichotomy of human intrinsic defence mechanism; this enables individuals to either fight for their survival in a threatening environment or escape from it, which is either due to fear or strategic aversion of killing another human being (Ibid, p.143). Another unanticipated fact about killing in a war is that without a leader’s direction, soldiers often feel without a sense of direction. Hence, become incapable of determining their own action, which shows the abrupt nature of humans to require authority, set path for direction and specific guidelines to react or respond in certain situations (Ibid, p.145). Leaders possess or influence subordinates in both physiological and psychological manner. Their presence can persuade subordinates to act in the most violate manner and can also impede them from violation. The repute of a leader or authority, the nature of demand of killing from the authority and authenticity of leader’s command act as the sound and rational bases for a subordinate to follow the commandment of a leader without consolidating it with his own belief or values (ibid, p.145). In addition, the author has also signified the importance of posture and submission process along with killing or fleeing mechanism in the time of war or life threatening situation. The hostility of a being is detected through its basic nature, posture or level of fear. Thus, one can determine that a baboon and rooster do not tend to attack

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Giving solutions to fix the problem of poor socialization of American Essay

Giving solutions to fix the problem of poor socialization of American children under the age six - Essay Example Child care workers should be given proper training before they are held eligible for child care or babysitting. Stay-at-home parents, especially the mothers, should be given incentives so that they happily stay with their children at homes without having to worry for finances. Community workers should arrange group play and culture group activities in a neighborhood park once or twice in a week, where mothers may bring their young kids, to make them play with others of their age. Toddlers of low income families should be given proper care and support from the government, so that they may be able to enjoy the similar kind of play activities as toddlers of high income families. Institutions should conduct seminars where parents of toddlers are invited, so as to spread awareness about good socialization of children. All of these solutions help a lot in creating such an environment at a societal level, where toddlers can be enabled to achieve high quality socialization skills, which will help them in their lives later on as

Monday, August 26, 2019

Business and Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business and Economics - Essay Example Basically, implicit costs are associated with the relinquished gains of any transaction. In its simplest form, an implicit cost takes place when the person misses out on satisfaction in search of an activity and is not compensated by money or any another form of fee; it starts and concludes with the act of foregoing the gains and satisfaction (McConnel and Brue 392-393). Another good illustration is when one decides to go to a university as a full-time student instead of working on a $20,000 job, this meant giving up earnings of $20,000. The potential earning being "sacrificed" is the implicit cost while explicit costs would be the books, basic tuition fees and laboratory charges, board and lodging and other conventional miscellaneous payments expected when taking a university education. On the other hand, explicit costs are the noticeable types of costs like rents, water and electric bill payments and expenditures on daily food maintenance (McConnell and Brue 410); in a business world scenario, these are the 'out of pocket' or cash expenditures a commercial enterprise incurs to outsiders who supply them resources. A business organisation is said to be making normal profit when total revenues equal aggregate expenditures. This takes place in situations of perfect competition when economic equilibrium is achieved. Economically speaking, normal profit is considered as a cost and acknowledged as one of the two elements of the cost of capital. Basically, this is the opportunity cost of employing consumerist capabilities in the creation or manufacture of a good or the profit that could be obtained by entrepreneurship in another commercial undertaking. Just like the opportunity costs of other resources, normal profit is subtracted from revenue to determine economic profit (Pyle and Larson 157-158). Since normal profit is economically a cost, there is no economic profit at equilibrium.. Is Economic Profit a Cost of Production Yes, by definition, economic profit is equivalent to the amount of output multiplied by the difference between the average cost and the price. This is what remains after all opportunity costs associated with production, are subtracted from the revenue generated by production. In a single-goods scenario, a positive economic profit occurs when the enterprise' average cost is below the value of the product or service at the profit-maximising output. Fundamentally, an economic profit crops up when its revenue surpasses the total (opportunity) cost of its inputs, noting that these outlays comprise the cost of equity capital that is gathered by normal profits (Albrecht 409). In essence, economic profit is the 'conceptually correct' idea of profit employed in economics, that is, if profit is revenue minus cost, then economic profit is the measure of profit. In the recession year of 1998, a lot of country A's residents who found themselves out of a job and short of money organised barter networks for goods and services. If such barter networks covered a significant quantity of goods and services, would measured GDP in 1998 be a good estimator of the actual value of goods and services produced during the year No, it will not be a good or an accurate estimator of the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Criminal Liability Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Criminal Liability - Assignment Example The fact that Neil died as a result of the scuffle with John, John may be held liable for manslaughter. Note that under the Homicide Act 1957, a person may be charged with voluntary manslaughter if death resulted from the act of another. Note that John came back and confronted Neil and he bodily pushed Neil to the ground then kicked him. Even if John did not intend to kill Neil, he is still guilty of maliciously inflicting bodily harm against Neil. When John came back to the scene to confront Neil, he already showed the elements of a guilty mind or mens rea as he had the chance to think things over when he turned away. The fact that Neil died in the hospital after he contracted MRSA does not excuse John from liability of his death.As stated by the court in the case of R v Blaue , where the subsequent events that lead to the death of the victim are foreseeable consequences of the incident and such foreseeable consequences would not have happened if not for the unlawful acts of the acc used, then there is no break in the causation and the accused may still be held liable for the death of the victim. In the case of John, he may be held liable for voluntary manslaughter under the Homicide Act 1957. However, John may use provocation as a mitigating circumstance to reduce his culpability. In order for John to make use of the defense of provocation, he should prove to the court that he is a reasonable man as defined by the court in the case of R v Ahluwalia   and he should prove to the court.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Is there a need for reform in Albany Term Paper

Is there a need for reform in Albany - Term Paper Example and corruption matters that occurred in the State legislature in the past two years and the kind of reforms that the Governor and the legislature has put in place to address the matter. The paper then describes the legal and policy structure of the adopted reforms and the public criticism that this has generated. The paper then concludes by giving recommendations to the Governor and to the State Legislature to restore the public trust (Katz). Although there are numerous cases of corruption in Albany, the most pointed cases have been in the legislature. In a recent scandal, the senators from Buffalo state George Maziarz as well as Patrick Gallivan purportedly spent $ 140,000 and $ 80,000 respectively in time they were in office. In this particular case, the problem was not in the spending of the money itself but the fact that they did not find it fit to report their expenditures. Apart from Senators’ George Maziarz and Patrick Gallivan being investigated, the now defunct Moreland Commission was also investigating state Sen. Diane Savino of Staten Island for alleged mismanaging of campaign funds. These two cases are a clear indication of the rot in the state’s Legislature (Frisch). In light of the corruption allegations within the state, Governor Cuomo set up the Moreland Commission (now defunct) to address the allegations. The power to form this commission comes from the Moreland Act, a legislation that gives the Governor the authority to set up a panel to look at waste in the government and to come up with recommendations for reforms. Upon setting up the committee, Attorney General Schneiderman offered to deputize the commission something that bolstered its powers. This was because his presence had accorded the commission a wider legal reach than the current powers that were contained in the Moreland Act (Medina). For Governor Cuomo, there is need to develop a campaign finance system that incorporates the option of public financing. The call for this reform

Head On and Tylenol Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Head On and Tylenol - Annotated Bibliography Example 2011. The book provides a one-kind-consumer guide that provides solutions to over 500 over-the-counter medications. It provides symptoms for common problems followed by over-the-counter prescriptions to alleviate the conditions. 3. Maryanne, H., & AARP (2006). The AARP guide to pills: Essential information on more than 1200 prescription and nonprescription medicines, available through Medical Databases Online, General Databases, accessed 20th Oct. 2011. The book addresses the problems of adults over the age of 50 years. The book also simplifies the effort to find information about certain drugs by presenting generic drugs in a logical A-to Z organization. It also provides a close reference to related brand new drugs. This information has been vetted by a board of con tent specialists from the finest institutions in United States. 4. King, L., & Mary, C. (2009). Pharmacology for Women’s Health, available through Medical Databases Online, Nursing Databases, accessed 19th Oct. 2011. The article includes an insight into the basic pharmacodynamics principles that allows health professionals to understand and know hoe to prescribe drugs. It includes chapters that describe pharmacology of various drugs that are used in wide variety of illnesses. The arctle provides fundamentals of nursing, Introduction to Nursing and Critical Thinking. It contains concrete examples which allow studentds to understand and apply the five steps of nursing process in the expanding world of healthcare. The book provides a user friendly step by step work-book like approach to the five steps of nursing process. It also offers good solutions to the most difficult part of nursing, diagnosis. It also contains exercises that allow the reader to practice what he has learnt. The book focuses on the choices which have to be made while designing a drug for newly

Friday, August 23, 2019

The Implementation of International Treaties (with Specific Reference Essay

The Implementation of International Treaties (with Specific Reference to the United Nations Convention for Biological Diversity - Essay Example ‘Implementation’ in legal terms refer to the different regulations, laws, policies, and various other initiatives and measures adopted for fulfilling the obligations as made mandatory under an environmental agreement (Donald, 2002). Implementation of environmental policies, at a global level, is liable to face more issues than implementing at a national level. This is owing to the fact that global implementation depends on mutual collaboration between different countries that have their own set of political, socio-economic and environmental issues, and are under voluntary obligations to follow the treaties; hence it is difficult to hold them responsible for failure in adhering to and implementing the convention guidelines. States with emerging economies may find that implementation of global environmental policies lacks feasibility. Such countries would prefer to allocate public funds for promoting socio-economic growth, instead spending money on safeguarding and regulat ing environmental resources. In developing nations (often, also observed in developed countries) increasing populations and demands for bettering the quality of life, a pressure develops on state governments to relax environmental protection norms. Keeping the challenges and the need for environmental protection in mind, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was created in 1992 for promoting worldwide sustainable environmental development. CBD is an international body that evolved from the Earth Summit (June 1992), also known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in Rio de Janeiro. The chief aims this Convention are: â€Å"conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding† (Convention On Biological Diversity, 1992, p. 3). The Convention takes into account many issues that range from safeguarding natural resources, to making â€Å"use of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components†(ibid, p. 2), arranging for incentives in cases where there have been sustainable use of environmental resources, and transfer of science and modern technology. In this context, this research paper will study and analyse the 1992 Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD) in order to review the issues faced while implementing global environmental policies. In recent years, countries have become dependent on different international bodies to promote cooperation between States at a global level on various aspects (Lane, 2006). International treaties have turned into foundation stones for various multilat eral regulatory efforts along with being an institutionalised kind of global collaboration, a process based on notions of shared sovereignties (Sharma, Chettri, Gurung and Shakya, 2007). Increased institutionalised collaboration in the recent years has created a complex mosaic of agreements at the global, regional and bilateral levels (Kim, 2003). Even after 2 decades since its inception, CBD continues to be one of the most important global

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Intelligence oversight Essay Example for Free

Intelligence oversight Essay Introduction: MEK Overview The Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK) is also known as the Peoples Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI). MEK has been sporadically active in attempting to overthrow the Iranian government since the early 1960s, and its members have used a variety of tactics to achieve their political ends including political campaigning, subversion, and violent attacks targeting civilians. Due in part to their targeting of American civilians living in Iran during the 1970s and their support of Saddam Hussein, the United States State Department has listed MEK as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. In October 2012, the U.S. State Department will decide whether to remove MEK from the FTO list based on MEKs denouncing terrorist tactics and devotion to diplomatic means to gain power versus violent attacks (Masters 2012). Origins, Ideology and Goals MEK was born out of a student-group resistance to Shah Pahlavi in 1965. The founding members of MEK in Tehran regarded the Shah as a U.S. puppet, and they felt that his westernization of Iran went against Irans traditional Islamic values. They believed in a violent overthrow of the Shah to return Iran to Islamic rule. In 1979, the group aligned itself with Ayatollah Khomeini in hopes that it could run for office after Shah Pahlavis exile, but Ayatollah Khomeini succeeded in overthrowing the Shah and he crushed any opposition to his new government. Since 1979, MEK has been trying to gain the opportunity to run for office in Irans government by shifting alliances and violently attacking the forces, which have prevented its political ambitions (Goulka 2009). In 2003, the group publically denounced violence in an attempt to foster global political support, but its place on the Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) list is blocking it from achieving its desired global support. According to MEK, it has strived for freedom and human rights, first against the despotic reign of Shah, and now the theocratic tyranny of the ayatollahs (MEK n.d.). It is an anti-fundamentalist Muslim  organization which believes in a democratic, progressive, and tolerant interpretation of Islam, according to which elections and public suffrage are the sole indicators of political legitimacy. The PMOI endeavors for a secular, democratic, and non-nuclear republic, and is committed to free elections, gender equality, and abolition of all discrimination against national and religious minorities (MEK n.d.) Non-nuclear is a key consideration for the United States and other western powers. Iran has increasingly taunted the world with its nuclear program and refuses to deescalate military tensions. In bold statements of aggression, in 2012 alone, Iran has announced two new missiles, an air defense site, and a fleet of ultra-fast gun boats designed to zip into battle against larger wester n fleets. In a twist of fate, MEKs future may lie in the hands of the United States. The United States has until October 1, 2012 to decide if it will delist MEK from the FTO. If MEK is delisted it will enjoy much more freedom of movement around the world and it will be able to legally receive funds from U.S. based sympathizers. It is not unreasonable to think that the U.S. will delist MEK in an effort to undermine the Iranian Government, much like Saddam Hussein offered MEK a home in 1986 to undermine Iran during the Iran Iraq war. Leadership, Funding and Capabilities Most of MEKs original leadership was arrested and executed in 1971, but Massoud Rajavi escaped death and remains a leader of MEK. Though he has not been seen publicly since 2003, his wife, Maryam Rajavi, is the public face of the MEK in her role as president-elect of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (Jones 2012). In the past four decades the group has used several methods to raise funds for its campaign. Some methods have made the group infamous and add to the list of reasons that the U.S. and several other nations have classified it as a Foreign Terrorist Organization. MEK has long been skilled in deception and has used that skill to affect its fund raising efforts. For example, its solicitation of funds for Iranian refugees, child welfare, and childrens medical services proven to be fraudulent (FBI n.d.). Until 2003, MEK had a substantial armory due to its previous relationship  with Saddam Hussein. Its inventory often included artillery, tanks, aircraft, rocket launchers, rifles, mortars, shells, rockets, land mines, and bullets (FBI n.d.). In 2003, the United States bombed MEK camps and bunkers based on their relationship to Saddam Hussein and the idea that they posed a significant threat with their armaments. MEK members no longer have easy access to such large stockpiles of arms. MEK is now facing deportation from its Iraqi camp Ashraf and remains disarmed. Operating Bases, Support Bases, Strengths MEK has moved its headquarters over the years as a necessary part of survival. Originally founded in Tehran, it moved to Paris after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. The group had allied with the Ayatollah Khomeini, but Khomeini forced the group out in fear of opposition. In 1986 Saddam Hussein invited the group to relocate to camp Ashraf. Iraq was at war with Iran, and relocating the group from Paris to Iraq was Husseins method of undermining Iran. At the start of the U.S. led war in Iraq under Operation Iraqi Freedom, the group was classified as enemy combatants and subsequently confined to Camp Ashraf, where approximately 3,000 MEK now live (Carter 2011). The new government of Iraq has declared that all members of MEK must leave the country, and the U.N. is currently working to resettle the group elsewhere. For the moment MEK enjoys limited support from sympathizers around the world, but it is stateless which is both a strength and a weakness. The U.N., citing international law, will not allow the Iraqi government to force members to leave Iraq or force repatriation until members have a suitable place to live. This predicament brings MEK some publicity and sympathy for their cause, but Iraqs determination to expel MEK could not have occurred at a worse time. With June 2013 elections nearing, increasing tension with western military powers, and an imminent Israeli preemptive strike against Iranian nuclear targets, MEK leadership must act swiftly to ensure its place in the 2013 elections. PART II RED TEAM ANALYSIS Why Use Red Team Analysis? Given the complex dynamics of the Iranian situation, analysts should use  the Red Team Analysis technique in order to best predict what course(s) of action MEK leadership will take to assume control of the government. By empathizing with the MEK leadership analysts can gain better insight to most likely courses of action. The end state of this analytic technique is to provide Congress and the President with an accurate forecast of MEKs courses of action so that the United States may apply the appropriate short and long term foreign policy in the Middle East. Since MEK desires a peaceful, tolerant Iran that can only be legitimized via free elections and public suffrage, it cannot take control of the nation by force. Therefore, MEKs options are limited and it must patiently await the 2013 elections regardless of the growing concern of military action and economic sanctions. As President Ahmadinejad continues to escalate military tension with western nations and Israel, through missile, nuclear, and naval programs (Torbati 2012). MEK leadership must carefully calculate how to win popular Iranian support, world support, and financial backing all without ever appearing to be influenced by western powers as previous Iranian leaders had. Restate Current MEK Goals Red Team Analysis must begin with placing oneself in the shoes of MEK leadership. The key to determining any viable course of action is to outline clear goals or milestones. With clear goals, analysts can categorize what actions and strategies are available and likely. According to MEKs official website, its current goals, rather, solution to the western-Iranian strife is to rid the region and the world of the nightmare of the Islamic fundamentalists armed with nuclear weapons [by] democratic change in Iran by the people and the Resistance (Rajavi 2010). This stated goal remains largely unchanged from its 1970s goal. The main difference now is that MEK is more tolerant of western aid, albeit, so long as they do not become overly influenced by it. Key Assumptions Check Paramount to the analytic process is a key assumptions check. This step allows analysts to clearly document the start point of their cognitive map as well as allowing time to consider information that challenges cognitive  biases. The key assumptions must be listed in such a way that analysts feel like MEK leaders would if trying to decide how to realize their stated goal of taking control of the Iranian government. Below is a list of key assumptions in this Red Team Analysis. Previous Failures. All previous attempts to control government have failed beginning with the overthrow of the Shah in 1979. This assumption is critical because the MEK believed the Ayatollah Khomeini was their ally. They were betrayed. They banded together only to be exiled within two years and many members were arrested and executed while Khomeini consolidated power. The experience likely taught MEK to distrust any potential allies within the current regime. History of Violence. During the 1960s the Shah used force and violence against government opposition. Uprisings in the 1970s culminated in the exile of the Shah, but into the 1980s MEK fought the new Iranian government. During the Iraq-Iran war that began in the early 1980s, MEK settled just north of Baghdad and fought a cross border war with the clerical regime for twenty more years. Only at the turn of the century did MEK publicly denounce violence and terrorist tactics. The significance is that, while MEK members are accepting of risk and violence, they have matured and realize that they do not operate in a vacuum. MEK understands the need for global acceptance. HUMINT Value. MEK can offer HUMINT to the U.S. No other organization with detailed knowledge of Iran and its military and political system is willing to provide such information to western powers. The U.S. has had extremely limited success installing or recruiting agents in Iran because of extreme scrutiny that outsiders face, and CIA informants are usually discovered due to poor tradecraft (Hosenball 2011). MEK however, has family, friends, sympathizers and safe houses inside Iran. As well, since the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 MEK has received training, equipment and funds to carry out attacks inside Iran and to collaborate with U.S. and Israeli intelligence services (Joshi 2012). MEKs HUMINT value is possibly the most important aspect for western powers. MEK leadership understands the power they hold and must leverage it wisely. Knowledge of U.S. Tactics Techniques and Procedures. MEK leaders are aware of U.S. TTPs at the small unit tactics level up through executive branch policymaking. They will play on the American and Israeli fears of a nuclear armed Iran while leveraging their HUMINT and political value to affect their delisting from the FTO. Once  delisted they wi ll be able to receive more funding from international sources, thus requiring less U.S. support and will become less responsive to U.S. demands. Western Support: Critical For Financing, Opposite of Ideology Being listed on the U.S. Foreign Terrorist Organization list impedes MEKs financing efforts. In order to gain power they must be delisted decade long endeavor thus far. Its members have cooperated with Israeli and U.S. intelligence services since 2003 in an effort to gain support and take over the political regime in Iran, but its original ideology was very much opposed to any western influence. MEK must exercise extreme caution to ensure that the group does not appear to be another puppet regime of the U.S and especially not in collaboration with Israel. If threatened with defeat, the current regime will likely try to depict MEK as a puppet regime, and if the U.S. loses influence it may also try to publicize MEKs cooperation in an effort to decrease its credibility among Iranians. Enormity of the Situation. MEK is currently stateless. Though the U.N. has petitioned several governments to accept MEK members, most have declined to accept them. With nowhere to go MEK is desperate to g ain power in Iran because it belongs to no other state. If they fail the Iranian regime will likely execute them, despite President Ahmadinejads amnesty offer. Data Collection Options Of the many collection options the United States has at its disposal, a handful stand out as being the most practical. HUMINT may be the best collection option because it offers an inside look at MEK and the status of the Iranian nuclear and defense programs as well as the mentality and plans of regime leaders. For example, an undercover agent, code named Wally, joined the Revolutionary Guard in the 1980s and gave the CIA plans, ideology, weaponry etc, and he was able to recruit several more members of the Revolutionary Guard to turn informer for the CIA (Zucchino 2012). OSINT is another extremely useful collection option, which can provide detailed atmospherics and help depict the support, or lack thereof, of the general public to the current and possible successor regimes. OSINT can also offer information on Irans defensive and offensive capabilities as depicted  in the recent revelation that Iran has cloned a fleet of ultra-fast gun boats. Originally produced in England, the Bradstone Challenger (Bladerunner) is a speedboat with a revolutionary hull design that affords it great stability at high speeds. Iran illicitly purchased a Bladerunner in 2009, reverse engineered the design, and manufactured its own fleet which the Navy modified to launch torpedoes and missiles at full speed. The Bladerunner fleet, combined with an array of heavily armed small craft, including unmanned high-speed Ya Mahdi vessels, Bavar 2 flying boats, Seraj-1 high-speed patrol boats and Zolfaghar fast attack craft (Stock 2012) poses a significant threat to the Strait of H ormuz and western naval forces with much larger and slower vessels. SIGINT and MASINT will likely have to wait until military confrontation begins in order to be relevant. MEKs equipment inventory is very limited, so SIGINT and MASINT should not be a top priority. GEOINT is relevant in that it depicts the correlation of key terrain to strategic targets and political issues. For example, GEOINT can depict which routes MEK would likely take in order to transit to Tehran or flee Iraq in other ways. It also helps answer contingency operation questions such as, what if MEK takes control of the military and attempts to hold the Strait of Hormuz ransom? In a more tactical situation GEOINT can provide detailed dimensions of hideouts and buildings for the U.S. to plan an attack should the need arise. Use of the Intelligence Community The CIA is the best is the best agency to use to handle collection on MEK. The agency has more than half a century of experience in working with sources and is best trained in managing counterintelligence and misinformation techniques. Already, the CIA has worked with MEK members since 2002 when MEK publicized Irans underground Uranium enrichment program. Training MEK members in tradecraft techniques and supporting their cross-border subversion tactics allows the CIA to wage a proxy war with Iran while strengthening its relationship and gaining more human intelligence on both MEK and Iran. No other agency within the United States has the resources to foster this type of relationship with MEK. Most Effective Intelligence Analysis Strategies The effective intelligence strategy to use for evaluating MEK and forecasting its actions is to begin with Analysis of Competing Hypotheses and follow those results with the Devils Advocacy method. Analysis of Competing Hypotheses. ACH is ideal for evaluating MEK because there are diverse dynamics involved in forecasting MEK actions. Considering that the U.S. must decide to keep or delist MEK from the FTO on October 1, 2012, ACH would provide decision makers with a documented line of reasoning to support an Intelligence Forecast. Devils Advocacy. The prevailing consensus in Washington is that MEK has morphed from a militant group to a political group in the past decade and will be a more western friendly regime if it comes to power. But what if MEK is playing the west to gain power now, while secretly planning to spread its 1979 revolutionary ideology across the Middle East and North Africa in an attempt to reestablish Persian dominance? It seems that the west is focused first on cou ntering a nuclear threat and second on countering any blocking of the Hormuz Strait. No additional talking points regarding Iran or MEK have received much publicity since 1979. Conclusion MEK is a wild card in the Iran standoff. The United States and other western powers, as well as Israel, must carefully consider how to proceed with MEK relationships. The organization has shown a history of changing allies in order to advance its goals, making it predictable in the sense that they can be counted on to do whatever it takes to survive and take control of the Iranian government. To brush MEK aside may mean dealing with a nuclear armed Iran later, and to support MEK may mean dealing with a provoked Iran now. No matter the decision, each carries its own implications for U.S. foreign policy. Washington must ultimately decide between the lesser of two evils. Bibliography Carter, Chelsea. U.N., Iraq agree to temporary relocation of Iranian exiles. CNN, December 26, 2011. location_1_camp-ashraf-ashraf-residents-mek/2?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST (accessed July 28, 2012). FBI. Seven Plead Guilty to Providing Material Support to Designated Foreign Terrorist Organization. FBI. (accessed July 29, 2012). Goulka, Jeremiah, et al. The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: A Policy Conundrum. RAND Corporation: Santa Monica, 2009. Hosenball, Mark. Hezbollah, Iran uncover CIA informants. Reuters. (accessed August 23, 2012). Jones, Owen Bennet. An Iranian mystery: Just who are the MEK?BBC News. (accessed July 30, 2012). Joshi, Shashank. Iran and the Mujahedin e Khalq (MEK). Harvard University Department of Government. (accessed August 24, 2012). Masters, Jonathan. Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK) (aka Peoples Mujahedin of Iran or PMOI). Council on Foreign Relations, July 18, 2012. (accessed July 24, 2012). MEK. Camp Ashraf: About Us. MEK. (accessed July 30, 2012). Rajavi, Maryam. Comprehensive sanctions is the essential first step, regime change is the final solution. Peoples Mojahedin Organization of Iran. (accessed August 22, 2012).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Divided And Unified Government

Divided And Unified Government The presidencies of Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan are clear examples of divided government, in which they both served under terms where they were contended with the opposing party within Congress. In the presidencies of James Carter, in which he served under terms where he had complete control of the Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate, and control over the Executive Branch. At the beginning of the United States government the most prevalent form of government was that of unified government. Yet after the 1970s and more specifically the Watergate scandal, divided government became the more prevalent as a response to this scandal. The comparison of the efficiency of divided government and the efficiency of unified government is significant to understanding whether commonly held myths about government are true or false. By analyzing the facts of the comparison in efficiency of the amount of major lawmaking and major investigations between divided and unified government, there can be better commonly held knowledge among the populace of the United States, which will allow for better informed voters in the near future. By understanding the commonly held myths about government, there can be better comprehension into the decisions and mindset of voters in the United States. If it is possible to debunk a commonly held myth about divided government, it is entirely possible to create a government that works in the best interest of the general public. The root at which I hold my interest in this subject is at the fact that many voters in the United States are uninformed about the politics of our government. Through the analysis of both types of government that can sprout in the United States, I might be able to enhance the mindset of many voters. It is not that voters are incorrect about their ideals; it is more closely related to the fact that many voters dont understand how to get their ideal through to the representatives that they have voted for. The entire system in which major lawmaking and major investigations occur is very interesting to say the least. The Legislative branch and the Executive branch are both spreading the reach at which their powers extend. It is therefore critical to understand the process by which I can become an informed voter that is able to get my ideals across to the representatives that I will be able to vote for soon. Literature Review Unified / Divided Government The United States of America has sustained two major political parties: the Republican Party and the Democrat Party. These two parties have allowed the United States government to have separations in party control over two branches in our government. These two branches are: the Legislative Branch, which is the Congress and Executive Branch, which is the President. Although, unified government has been the norm since the creation of our government. Due to the scandal of the Nixon Administration in the Watergate Scandal, the United States has popularized the use of the divided government, to be able to keep the other party in check. The separation of the Legislative Branch and the Executive Branch is the United States separation of powers. This separation of powers leads to a checks and balances on the federal government. Many voters view divided government as a good thing; Parties jointly in power are seen to perform a service by checking each other. (Mayhew, 1991), therefore many vot ers prefer it as a system of checks and balances. The United State government has functioned for so long because it is able to bend and become malleable to the needs to two political parties. Within a unified government, which was the preferred government at the creation of the United States, one political party is in control of the Executive Branch and the Legislative Branch. A unified government is prevalent in the presidential career of President James Carter. On the other hand of the spectrum, within a divided government, this is where either the Executive Branch or the Legislative Branch is controlled by two different political parties. This is the preferred government after the Watergate Scandal during President Nixons career. The efficiency of both types of government has been crucial to determining which type of government will best suit the needs of the United States. Nixon Administration The United States has been governed under the authority of President Nixon during the years of 1919 to 1974. As our 37th President of the United States, and the only one to resign, he has gone through a great ordeal. The events leading up to his resignation are crucial to understanding the significance of the backlash against unified government. President Richard Nixon faced great adversity with the Vietnam War; he was put into a situation where most of the United States citizens wanted an immediate withdrawal of troops out of Vietnam, but he couldnt do that without looking weak. President Nixon has prevailed through many obstacles during his career, yet he has also accomplished a great deal. For example, President Nixon gained the United States great relations with China. The Watergate Scandal of President Nixon career was the most distraught event that could have happened to President Nixon. The Watergate Scandal was all of the mischievous and clandestine operations that President Nixon ordered, which were to bug many offices of people who were opposition to President Nixon. President Nixon used his power as President of the United States through many of his executive branches to gain valuable knowledge about the opposition. President Nixon made a fatal mistake, when he sent five men into the Democratic Party Headquarters and they were caught. This Watergate Scandal ended in the ultimate resignation of President Nixon on August 9, 1974. Carter Administration During the Carter Administration, President James Carter was the 39th President of the United States. President James Carter faced the U.S. energy crisis, deregulation, and the United States boycott of the Moscow Olympics. The U.S. energy crisis was declared by President Carter through a televised speech and this lead to him advising each and every citizen to conserve energy. President James Carter went through deregulation with his cabinet, the cabinet discussed regulatory reform. We estimate that government regulation cost $100 billion this year about 5 percent of our GNP. Were trying to cut down on regulation, having had remarkable success in the airline industry maybe a good example. (Carter, 2010); President Carter went through deregulation not only with the airline industry, which the United States removed government control over fares, President Carter deregulated the American Beer Industry, which allowed home brewing. President James Carter went through the U.S. boycott of the Moscow Olympics. Although this action wasnt popular to the many people who were waiting for the Olympics; President Carter took this action to respond to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. By boycotting the 1980 Summer Olympics, President James Carter was able to accomplish nothing. The Soviet Union left Afghanistan long after President Carter left office. President James Carter was able to get plenty done in a unified government, which allowed him to easily pass deregulation laws. Reagan Administration The Reagan Administration, marked with the 40th President of the United States, President Ronald Reagan. President Ronald Reagan served during the years of 1981 to 1989. President Ronald Reagan brought about the idea of Reaganomics; he survived an assassination attempt and went through the Iran-Contra affair. President Ronald Reagan brought up the concept of Reaganomics, which was his way to increase the growth of the economy. President Ronald Reagan tried to spur this growth by advocating a reduction of tax rates. Furthermore, President Ronald Reagan introduced the government in the control of the money supply to try to reduce inflation. President Ronald Reagan went through deregulation, just like of that of his predecessor, President James Carter. President Ronald Reagan did his best to reduce the United States government spending. President Ronald Reagan actually survived an assassination attempt on his life by a man who was not convicted on the plea of insanity. President Ronald Reagan went through the Iran-Contra affair which made his executive branch take part of illegal and scandalous operations to fund weapons to Iran to receive seven American hostages in return. Research Statement The United States governments method by which they utilize their legislative power is through the Legislative Branch and the Executive Branch. The Legislative Branch, which is composed of the Congress, which in itself is composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, is the driving force of where divided government and unified government occurs. The Executive Branch, controlled by the President of the United States, is in a way, the supreme voice for his political party. The President of the United States determines which laws are passed; therefore the Congress must come to terms to be able to pass a law that suits the President of the United States. The presidencies of Nixon and Reagan showed clear divided government and the presidency of Carter showed clear unified government. All of the presidencies contained great ordeals and hardships. The efficiency of the two types of government: divided government and unified government are contended. Divided government is a form of government that induces conflict between the Congress inner workings and the Executive Branch. Unified government is a form of government that induces union and ease of lawmaking between the Congress inner workings and the Executive Branch. Does the commonly held myth that a unified government works more efficiently than a divided government uphold when considering the presidencies of Nixon, Carter, and Reagan? Does the frequency of major lawmaking or major investigations in government determine whether a unified government is more efficient than a divided government? The posed questions are significant to understand which type of government is best for this generations lifestyle. By posing these two questions, the concept of lawmaking and major investigations is enlightened. It is important to understand how the process of lawmaking and major investigations occurs within our legislative branch and executive branch. It is also important to understand the efficiency at which these two types of governments operate at. By understanding this efficiency, it is possible to determine how we should run the United States government. Research Findings Efficiency of Unified and Divided Government The efficiency of divided government compared to that of unified government is commonly held that divided government holds a stalemate of sorts when the two political parties in control hold their ground and refuse to give ground to what they consider to be their enemy. On the level of lawmaking, this process can be interrupted with divided government; this means at least that significant lawmaking can be expected to fall off when party control is divided. (Mayhew, 1991) Divided government can come to this standstill if both political parties are unable to compromise for the benefit of others. The divided government by which the post Watergate generation has been accustomed to has been deceived or for a better term, they have been misled to believe that a unified government is much more efficient for their generation than that of a divided government. In terms of the efficiency of each type of government, the efficiency is determined by the frequency of major lawmaking and the effectiveness of that major lawmaking. Within the legislative process, it is quite simple to pass a law when the government is unified. However, the efficiency of this law derives from its effectiveness for the purpose of bettering the general public of the United States. An array of elected officials presidents, senators, and House members heaved up by different constituencies at different dates and enjoying fixed terms and constitutional powers. (Mayhew, 2008) Frequency of Major Lawmaking / Investigations Power struggles between conservative Republican and liberal Democratic elected politicians in the White House. The Senate and the House of Representatives are based upon the rapidly changing ideological composition of voters who make up the Democratic and Republican parties and nominate their respective parties candidates. (Black Black, 2007) The frequencies at which major lawmaking and major investigations within a divided government and unified government occur differ slightly when compared. Within a unified government, the frequency of major lawmaking and major investigations occurs slightly more frequently than that of a divided government because within a divided government, the opposing parties are unable to compromise and therefore never gain common ground to have major lawmaking as frequently as unified government. In unified government, there is only one party in control, and therefore the President, such as that of President James Carter is able to bring both the House of Representatives and the Senate to an agreement with deregulation and the energy crisis. On the other hand, within a divided government, such as the career of both President Richard Nixon and President Ronald Reagan, they both were able to bring the opposing parties within Congress to have an efficient government. With the presidency of Ronald Reagan, he was able to bring Congress together to pass laws of deregulation. On the basis of the efficiency of divided and unified government, the overall answer is that divided government brings about compromise within the Congress that is valuable to creating laws that benefit all, instead of a unified government that only implements its ideals.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Role of Training and Development in Employee Empowerment

Role of Training and Development in Employee Empowerment Research Objective The main objective of my dissertation is to analyse how training and empowerment assist organization in the hospitality industry in general and the Hilton Group in particular gain the much needed strategic advantage over their competitors and help them gain and sustain market share in the long run. The dissertation will also demonstrate the various actions that are may be initiated by organizations in the hospitality industry to achieve higher levels of empowerment within its workforce without compromising on its internal controls. Research Questions What is the role of training and development in employee empowerment at the Hilton Hotels? Why is empowerment necessary in the running of Hotels, with particular reference to the Hilton Hotel Chain? What strategies or policies are pursued by organizations to enable them improve the level of skills and knowledge of their employees to meet emerging challenges? The dissertation will also attempt to answer the following questions: Does active implementation of training and learning policies lead to the empowerment of employees? What is the meaning of empowerment of employees within an organizations setting? What are the likely benefits of empowered workforce to the organization? Even though a lot of research may have been done in related or similar topics, this dissertation will objectively examine the findings of other researchers on similar topics, critique their findings and arguments and build a neutral position that may stand the test of thorough independent analysis and that is in line with the current theories of HRM and management in general. The Context(s): The hospitality industry in the UK has often been faced with many challenges which on one hand, prompted employees to be more responsive to the challenges they face and on the other hand, challenged industry players to remain competitive in the wake of aggressive competition from competitors. This industry, in particular, benefits and integrates their employees and other human resources (providing the industrys services) with the structural and integral part of the organizational strategy as a strategic partner. This allows companies such as the Hilton plc. to invest in people, train them in order to prosper and survive within the competitive environment. Other challenges for this industry include the ever changing demands of consumers tastes and preferences, rising demand for extra services, thus hard to accommodate. Additionally these customers preferences has made it practically unviable to continue with the old ways of doing business as it present many obvious risks of losing clients to more dynamic competitors. Thus training and empowering employees will help reduce these risks in some way or another. The Hilton Group Plc. is made up of some 500 hotels located in some 50 countries across all regions of the world (DAnnunzio-Green, Maxwell Watson, 2004). The Hotel presently employs over 60,000 employees in its worldwide operation and has a management structure divided in to the key regions of its operations, with each region headed by a president, all answerable to the board of directors (DAnnunzio-Green, et al, 2004). The terms training, education, development and learning may appear synonymous and be used interchangeably in other applications, but from HRD point of view, they are different but also mutually inclusive (Buckley Caple, 2007). Whitener (2003) in her paper titled Impact of Human Resource Activities on Employee Trust emphasizes the role of training in providing more knowledge and skills to employees to enable them perform their respective jobs better. Thus the primary role of training according to whitener is the enhancement of skills, while it may also serve the purpose of motivating the employees if offered in recognition for exemplary performance (Whitener, 1997) The aim of the training program would be to enable the organization gain sustainable strategic advantage that would not be easily replicated among competitors (Porter, 1985 as cited in Clardy, 2008). To be earmarked for enhancement through training and development would be the skills that add value to the organization commonly referred to as core competencies (Clardy, 2008). In this dissertation I will also show how training and empowerment are related. In the Barret and OConnel article of 1999, found in the journal of The Institute of Study of Labour, the authors assert that despite the challenges so far faced, training has gained prominence in the recent past as a key tool for empowerment for improvement in productivity and operational efficiency (Barret OConnell, 1999). According to Barret OConnell, (1999), there are two forms of training; general and specific training. General training is that form of training which boost productivity in the firm where it was provided and all firms, while specific training only raises productivity in the firm where it was provided. Organizations thus would seem to favour specific training and would readily pay for it for it since it is likely to give them a competitive advantage in their business (Barret OConnell, 1999). Since the main focus of the dissertation is empowerment of employees through training and development of a learning culture, it would be important to address the theoretical background information relating to the research topic. Case in point is training and learning, which must be properly understood in order to authoritatively argue about its role in empowerment of employees. According to Buckley Caple, (2007), training refers to imparting new skills or reinforcing previously known skills and knowledge on employees for a positive change in behaviour that would change the way they work and behave. This will also be illustrated in literature review as I intend to show why Buckley thinks that training is a relevant activity that need to be pursued by all organizations in order to achieve their long term mission and objectives. Research design (including methods) or critical approach: Research Methodology: In order to achieve the main objectives of the study, it would be inevitable to collect and analyse data and other information so as to enable arriving at a conclusion. One method that would be used would involve the collection of information and data from secondary sources such as the library, internet sources, journals, newspaper articles to collect as much information as possible relevant to the research topic. This would also involve using available data from credible sources such as hotel industry regulated websites, journals and magazines or from previous peer reviewed and published works by other researchers and comparing the information there on to establish a common pattern that would guide the discussion and the conclusion of the research questions. For this particular dissertation, the bulk of the information and data will be obtained from peer reviewed and published research articles in similar research subjects. The main reasons for adopting this methodology are that it is generally simple to undertake and does not require a lot of time and resources to undertake. This is because the research does not involve field based data collection which is often more time consuming and expensive. This makes the approach ideal in situations where there is limited time and researches to undertake the research, which is indeed applicable to this dissertation. Further the data and information collected would be generally accurate since it would be based on published peer reviewed researches and other papers on the same topic which have stood the test of rigorous scrutiny by HR professionals and other management researchers over the years and found to be authentic. The books and other materials that may be used would generally also bear accurate information and would provide useful insights in to the theoretical background of the research subject. Research Strategies In order to effectively carry out the research assignment, it would be important to identify the appropriate research strategies that would be acceptable and help in answering the research questions conclusively. This dissertation would use both deductive and inductive research strategies to achieve this aim. Norman Blaikie in his book titled, Designing Social Research published in 2009 define inductive research strategies as those strategies that help in answering the what research questions and are generally explorative and descriptive in nature (Blaikie, 2009). Deductive strategies would also be used in order to address the why research questions that form part of the dissertation. Blaikie (2009) also describes deductive strategies as those research strategies that assist in answering the why questions and are most suitable for pursuing the purpose of explanations Ethical issues: There should not be any ethical issue related to my research. Special resources required: No special resources will be required for my dissertation.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Student :: essays research papers

OF MICE AND MEN A novel by John Steinbeck Two Youngs, George e Lennie were going to Soledad to work in a farm. The two mans were friends for a lot of time. Lennie wasn’t sane, but he was a good guy and a strong worker: George looked after him. They were fleeing from an other farm in Weed, where Lennie caused umpteenth trouble because of the strange manias of Lennie who liked touching everything soft: he touched the dress of a girl who thought he wanted to maltreat her. Lennie and George had a dream: an own farm where they can do everything that they want to. In the new farm they knew the other worker and the con of the owner, Curley, a typical picker of quarrels: he was neurotic for his stature and Lennie was high. Soon they knew his wife too who, unhappy for her marriage, wandered around the farm to speak with someone on the sly and for her habit she didn’t have a good reputation. Candy, a worker of the farm, knew the projects of the two Youngs and he asked them if he had been able to join them because he had some money for the indemnity of an incident on work. George, Candy and Lennie made a pact and they foresaw that by a month they would have had their farm. Lennie liked touching the soft things and he spent a lot of time stroking some little dogs. A day, when he was in the stable where there were the dogs, while other people were playing in a different part of the farm, came into the room Curley’s wife who didn’t know Lennie’s character. Lennie told her about his pleasure in touching soft things and her let him to caress her hear. The man was seizing her by hear brutally. She was howling. He shook her accidentally, he broke her neck and she died.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Downloading Music on the Internet Essay -- Argumentative File Sharing

Who’s downloading? Throughout many years of the computer age there has been much advancement in computer technology. It first began with the people getting the Internet, then people began to understand the Internet, and then lastly people learned to overpower the Internet. Within the past several years the downloading music factor strongly took effect. To the majority of the internet population they tend to believe there’s nothing wrong with getting free tunes, but there is the select few who believe it is morally wrong. Overall, I truly enjoy having the free access to music; it enables you to try new music without bother making purchases and having a poor after effect. This is an excellent way to save money, as well as making your music selection more diverse. I can consider myself a good example of the music downlaoder; I have been around the computer age for several years and have learned a tremendous amount towards the Internet and its downloading. For recent experience I have gained a lot of information towards why music downloading is a great process. Most of the information presented here is mostly from experience and from recent article placed on the Internet. If you were to ask the average American if they believed downloading music is a good advancement toward the Internet society, in response you would get a 70% of the people agreeing with it. One person said, â€Å"Ever since downloading is begun, I have not only learned of new music, but have found bands I never thought I could get.†(Discovering computer 2003) From a typical user you can learn a whole lot when you’re not up to today’s status. A major reason why downloading is great is because it’s free, accessible and everyone can join in on it. All it consi... ... is the freedom of press and I acknowledge this and so does the law, therefore let this be and everyone will be happy. Money and time should not be wasted in the court systems anymore. Works Cited: Coates, J. (2002, October 28) Find song files from Napster by using .MP3. Chicago Tribune. pp. B19 Kloer, P. (2002, September) Celebrity TV ads will fight music downloading. Retrieved November 17, 2002 from McDonald, T. (2001, June) Bad News Keeps on Coming for Napster Users. Retrieved Novemeber 16,2002 from Shelly, G., & Cashman, T., & Vermaat, Misty. (2002). Discovering Computers 2003. Boston: Thomson Course Technology. Weber, L. (2002, November 4). CD burning, song-swaps slow online music. Chicago Tribune. pp. A6.

Vittorio de Sicas The Bicycle Thief Essay -- Movies Film Bicycle Thie

Vittorio de Sica's The Bicycle Thief Since the beginning of its existence as a country, Italy has faced enormous challenges in establishing itself as a unified political and social entity. The geographic, economic, and linguistic differences between its various regions and the artificial manner in which they were amalgamated created a legacy of internal divisions that continues to dominate the country's political climate to this day. Italy's numerous historical fiascoes, such as its disastrous involvement in the two World Wars and the rise of fascism, further escalated the domestic problems that had haunted it since the Risorgimento. At first, the anti-fascist Resistance movement, which dominated the end of World War II, seemed to bring Italy a ray of hope, promising a new era of freedom, reform, and democratic representation. However, this hope was quickly extinguished, as widespread poverty, government corruption, and deep divisions between regions and classes persisted and no true social reform was attained. These ha rsh conditions were depicted by a group of Italian film directors whose neorealist works have since been celebrated as masterpieces of world cinema. One of the most prominent of these is Vittorio De Sica's The Bicycle Thief. This 1948 film discusses the prevalent themes dominating Italy's social and political history, within the context of the unsettlingly poor post-War urban proletariat. Among the most prominent motifs in Italian politics since the Risorgimento has been a tendency for quasi-action (inaction disguised as action), in the form of transformismo and attendismo. The first of these terms refers to the practice of "assuring the government of an adequate majority in parliament either by a prelimina... ...ial failure. This somber conclusion of the film seems to be an expression of hopelessness for Italy's future. By 1948, the country had gone through a series of tumultuous historical events, caused by the inadequacy of its political and economic system. The disillusionment of its citizens with the system and in fact with the very concept of their nation was taken to its limits by yet another failure to achieve true social change after World War II. The transformismo of the Christian Democrats and the attendismo of the Communists offered no hope for Italians, appearing as just another stage in the country's endless cycle of political and social failure. The Bicycle Thief is a portrait of Italy's collective consciousness, haunted by its disturbing past and disillusioned towards its future. Works Cited; URL: Vittorio de Sica's The Bicycle Thief Essay -- Movies Film Bicycle Thie Vittorio de Sica's The Bicycle Thief Since the beginning of its existence as a country, Italy has faced enormous challenges in establishing itself as a unified political and social entity. The geographic, economic, and linguistic differences between its various regions and the artificial manner in which they were amalgamated created a legacy of internal divisions that continues to dominate the country's political climate to this day. Italy's numerous historical fiascoes, such as its disastrous involvement in the two World Wars and the rise of fascism, further escalated the domestic problems that had haunted it since the Risorgimento. At first, the anti-fascist Resistance movement, which dominated the end of World War II, seemed to bring Italy a ray of hope, promising a new era of freedom, reform, and democratic representation. However, this hope was quickly extinguished, as widespread poverty, government corruption, and deep divisions between regions and classes persisted and no true social reform was attained. These ha rsh conditions were depicted by a group of Italian film directors whose neorealist works have since been celebrated as masterpieces of world cinema. One of the most prominent of these is Vittorio De Sica's The Bicycle Thief. This 1948 film discusses the prevalent themes dominating Italy's social and political history, within the context of the unsettlingly poor post-War urban proletariat. Among the most prominent motifs in Italian politics since the Risorgimento has been a tendency for quasi-action (inaction disguised as action), in the form of transformismo and attendismo. The first of these terms refers to the practice of "assuring the government of an adequate majority in parliament either by a prelimina... ...ial failure. This somber conclusion of the film seems to be an expression of hopelessness for Italy's future. By 1948, the country had gone through a series of tumultuous historical events, caused by the inadequacy of its political and economic system. The disillusionment of its citizens with the system and in fact with the very concept of their nation was taken to its limits by yet another failure to achieve true social change after World War II. The transformismo of the Christian Democrats and the attendismo of the Communists offered no hope for Italians, appearing as just another stage in the country's endless cycle of political and social failure. The Bicycle Thief is a portrait of Italy's collective consciousness, haunted by its disturbing past and disillusioned towards its future. Works Cited; URL:

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Painted Veil – Presentation Note

Lift Not The Painted Veil Which Those Who Live Lift not the painted veil which those who live Call Life: though unreal shapes be pictured there, And it but mimic all we would believe With colours idly spread,–behind, lurk Fear And Hope, twin Destinies; who ever weave Their shadows, o'er the chasm, sightless and drear. I knew one who had lifted it–he sought, For his lost heart was tender, things to love, But found them not, alas! nor was there aught The world contains, the which he could approve. Through the unheeding many he did move, A splendour among shadows, a bright blot Upon this gloomy scene, a Spirit that stroveFor truth, and like the Preacher found it not. Percy Bysshe Shelley Charlie Townsend Post: married British vice consul = smart, sensible and he knows very well of what’s going on evidence – after walter walked away when he first found them in Kitty’s room, kitty was so panic but townsend knows that Dr. Fane will do nth. To cause any sc andal – when he’s discussing about the dealing with strikes(walkouts)/ boycotts in Shanghai with businessmen in the Colony Club, he banned the suggestion of seeking help from Chiang Kai-Shek as he knew that he’s a nationalist that must stand on the side of Chinese, he will not help them suppressing the strike. mature and experienced woman-hunter , very dissolute person and he’s unfaithful to his wife Evidence –flirted kitty from the very first moment they’ve met when they’re watching the Chinese opera ?Telling kitty what happened to the actor in the opera which he thinks that it may be similar to Kitty (she weeps for the lively, vivacious girl she once was? the lonely woman she has become; she weeps for the love she’ll never feel, for the love she’ll never give) to flirt Kitty ? made Kitty believes that he understands her, admire her ? Charlie Townsend found it so easy to get hold of her As described by Waddington: he ha d his little flirtations +As described by Dorothy: the women who fell for her husband were so consistently second-rate ? even his wife knows that her husband is a gallant/licentious/dissolute person that flirts many women +having an affair with Kitty? adultery, he only sees Kitty as his mistress to satisfy his physical needs (attachment: lever) Dorothy is more important to him because â€Å"whatever happens, we must try to keep Dorothy out of it† ? did not want to hurt Dorothy and nth in the world could induce him to divorce herWomen are always under the impression that men love them more that they really do. Film language – = selfish, vain and incapable of caring for anyone but himself Care for his reputation/ job/ post: â€Å"do you have any idea of the importance of my station here? † – at that time, there’ll be many rumors that ruin the reputation of a man if anyone divorce his wife and marry another woman. Therefore he cares more about his rep utation, his position than what will happen on Kitty if he does not marry her, as Kitty is just someone means very little to him.Film language – =a person who made false promise Evidence – sent kitty a ring as a gift – RING: symbolize love, faith and commitment. He proclaimed that he loves Kitty when he was having sex with Kitty, actually he does not love her, it’s just a way to flirt Kitty and make Kitty willing to continue the affair with him. – promised that he would help solve the problem when Kitty was forced to be divorced. After 5 years, at last, he still did nth, not even a letter to show his concern. â€Å"I should have written†Film language – Why Townsend treat Kitty as close as 5 years ago when he later met her in London? =the only one that failed to change in the film He never learn from any experience or errors that he has made; Besides, he does not think that he had done sth wrong? does not feel sorry /guilty for breakin g Kitty’s marriage He tried to date Kitty again in his later few weeks in London (to see if there’re any more chances for him to flirt kitty again, like 5 years ago) – described by Kitty – â€Å"no one important† 0th century that artists began to use it fully; a pipe would stand for thoughtfulness and calm; the cigarette symbolized modernity, strength and youth, but also nervous anxiety; the cigar was a sign of authority, wealth and power. The decades following World War II, during the apex of smoking when the practice had still not come under fire by the growing anti-smoking movement, a cigarette casually tucked between the lips represented the young rebel, epitomized in actors like Marlon Brando and James Dean or mainstays of advertising like the Marlboro Man.It was not until the 1970s when the negative aspects of smoking began to appear; the unhealthy lower-class loser, reeking of cigarette smoke and lack of motivation and drive, especially in a rt inspired or commissioned by anti-smoking campaigns. [ Literature Just as in other types of fiction, smoking has had an important place in literature and smokers are often portrayed as characters with great individuality, or outright eccentrics, something typically personified in one of the most iconic smoking literary figures of all, Sherlock Holmes.Other than being a frequent part of short stories and novels, smoking has spawned endless eulogies, praising its qualities and affirming the author's identity as a devoted smoker. Especially during the late 19th century and early 20th century, a panoply of books with titles like Tobacco: Its History and associations (1876), Cigarettes in Fact and Fancy (1906) and Pipe and Pouch: The Smokers Own Book of Poetry (1905) were written in the UK and the US.The titles were written by men for other men and contained general tidbits and poetic musings about the love for tobacco and all things related to it, and frequently praised the refined ba chelor's life. The Fragrant Weed: Some of the Good Things Which Have been Said or Sung about Tobacco, published in 1907, contained, among many others, the following lines from the poem A Bachelor's Views by Tom Hall that were typical of the attitude in many of the books: The cover of My Lady Nicotine: A Study in Smoke (1896) by J. M. Barrie, otherwise best known for his play Peter Pan. â€Å"So let us drinkTo her, – but think Of him who has to keep her; And sans a wife Let's spend our life In bachelordom, – it's cheaper. † —Eugene Umberger[68] These works were all published in an era before the cigarette had become the dominant form of tobacco consumption and pipes, cigars and chewing tobacco were still commonplace. Many of the books were published in novel packaging that would attract the learned smoking gentleman. Pipe and Pouch came in a leather bag resembling a tobacco pouch and Cigarettes in Fact and Fancy (1901) came bound in leather, packaged in an imitation cardboard cigar box.By the late 1920s, the publication of this type of literature largely abated and was only sporadically revived in the later 20th century. [69] Cigarettes in old films were early forms of ‘product placement' 5. Cigarettes as Phallic Symbols Back during the Hays Code days, cigarettes were clever devices used as metaphoric hints at sexual activity. When characters shared cigarettes, such as in Now, Voyager, To Have and Have Not and Rope, it implied a sex act. When Marlene Dietrich held a cigarette in any of her films, the prop was a phallic symbol implicit in projecting an image of bisexuality.And ironically, in a film as explicit as 9 ? Weeks, a cigarette may have been a required stand-in for Mickey Rourke’s penis during a strip-tease scene, because male nudity continues to be a taboo while the naked female body is common on the big screen. However, not all cigarettes in films represent sex and/or phallus, but due to the heavy employment of the prop in such a way for so many years, it’s hard for moviegoers (particularly those of us with film studies degrees) to think of them as anything but sex symbols.Fortunately, Hollywood is being forced to censor out cigarettes from their movies (for even featuring a pack of cigarettes), and meanwhile they continue to break sexual taboos at the same time. So this cliche is likely to go way very soon. Friendship Since friendship is not a very important issue in the Painted Veil, Compared to love and death, I’ll just talk about the more significant one. = kitty and Waddington At the very first beginning: Then: At the end: = Dr Fane and Colonel Yu When Colonel Yu met Walter, Then, after At the end: =Kitty and sung chingAt first, Sung Ching was appointed by Colonel Yu to protect Kitty due to the anti-foreigner atmosphere in china, kitty felt like she was guard as a prisoner Then, she started to reject Sun Ching’s protection and treat him badly when she was finding Mr. Waddington for mailing the letter, tell him to go away and she does not need him At the climax of the anti-foreigner movement, Sun Ching saved Kitty and Walter from the crowd, on the next day, kitty then ask Sun Ching to come with her friendly. Mei-tan-fu Background info = a village mad up by the author, not a real village (at first ? lanned to build a new village of Mei-tan-fu in Guangxi, however, the cost is too huge and overwhelming ? sent a scout to find a village for the film ? found a completely untouched village = Huang Yao – 800 years history; untouched because there’s no telegraph poles or anything else to contact people in other places? perfect for shooting The rivers and mountains shoots are taken from Huang Yao, it’s from Guangxi ~> on-location (means the film is shot at the actual place where the action occurs) Mei-tan fu is a place with many significance in the film, please pick one to and explain why.Significances: = new home of the Fanes = the place where death rest – Chinese villagers/ walter/ kitty seeing two corpses + colour of lights 1st: the corpse of a villager pass along the same road of Kitty and Walter’s sadden chairs 2nd: the hut where kitty and walter stays – the doll on the bed of kitty’s room Walter: â€Å"I won’t touch that if I were you, they may have died in that bed† 3rd: the corpse of a villager on the side of the road when Kitty walked out from Mr, Waddington’s house 4th: the bodies are buried too close to the river th: the death of Sister Maryse 6th: the soldiers removing corpses from the villagers’ house 7th:the death of walter =a place for reunion -kitty and walter=a place where they fall in love again Before the union, Walter and Kitty were separated spiritually due to the affair . /. kitty and charlie How – after kitty had heard from the nuns about Walter helping the orphans? stating to know that he is a good man and wants to impro ve their relationship.After Walter had seen Kitty playing with the orphans, he started to have better feelings for Kitty After the union, their relationship has been recovered, they even have sex after drinking with Mr. Waddington and XX. Then they travel on the boat to let Kitty visit the water XX. =changes brought by cholera(+ve and -ve) – kitty(+ve)/ walter(+ve &-ve)/ colonel yu(+ve) Described by Kitty- no place for a woman; madness for me to go Described by Dr. Fane – small town on a tributary of Yangtze River, in the interior Film language: colour of light, long shot,

Friday, August 16, 2019

Explore the Role of Trading Blocs on International Trade Essay

International Business In this assignment, I will be defining international trading bloc and their purpose before outline all the different examples of trading blocs such as WTO, Customers Unions, and Common Markets before explaining how these impact on the international trade. I will apply the trading blocs and examples to Jaguar – Land Rover, a multimillion-pound car manufacturer distributing worldwide. Trading Blocs Trading Blocs is a group of countries in a geographical area that gets together to protect themselves from countries outside the group, working together to make goods or services move more easily and placing restrictions on the number of goods or services being brought into the area. Some organizations help to make these countries work together and move goods or services more easily. These organizations include World Trade Organisation and other common markets such as the EU. World Trade Organisation (WTO) The WTO makes sure that countries can trade with each other as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible so that businesses can sell their goods all over the world. The WTO has negotiated agreements between countries so that businesses trading have legal rights and agreements to protect them. If there are disagreements or arguments between two countries then WTO will step in and assist the situation. WTO has a positive impact on international trading as they ensure all businesses trade fairly and legally and ensure that no one is ripped off or miss sold goods. Customs Unions and Common Markets In some areas of the world, customers unions and common markets have been established to allow free trade to take place between those different countries. This allows businesses more rights and opportunities to trade with each other with the support of the common market to ensure everyone is trading and operating legally and effectively. The EU The EU was established in Second World War through European Economic Community. At the start, 6 countries joined the EU, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. Over the next 60 years, more and more countries joined the EU, 28 countries including the UK joined by 1973. The EU was a very crucial in international trade as they set up their own internal market which allowed countries to move and trade goods or services even freer between the countries involved. It achieves the above through a number of different ways. – It has its own currency, the Euro. – It provides EU citizens the movement to other countries without VISA`s as long as they are a member of the EU. – They have their own set of rules they must adhere to in order to maintain a member of the EU. Mercosur Rather like the EU, this group was established to help the third world, less developed countries increase the trading opportunities between each other. Countries involved within the common market are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, all less developed countries who can`t afford the scale and size of international trade deals occurring in the EU, hence why they are a part of the Mercosur. They have more land and size than the EU, however, have made little progression when compared to the EU, however, have similar aspirations and goals, wanting to make international trade and movement as easy as the EU do. The effect it has on the countries involved is that it provides them with a platform to trade internationally and increase the size of deals, bringing in more money to the country and helping to improve local economies. They still have the same legal rights and regulations when it comes to b2b trading. The above have a massive positive impact on countries who are a part of the Europe Union as it provides plenty of other countries the opportunity to trade freely between each other using the same currency and operating under the same legal rules and regulations. If any deals went downhill and a business within the EU was miss sold goods or not paid the full balance then they can appeal to the EU for support and guidance, allowing them to take legal action against the other business. Jaguar – Land Rover will be impacted in different ways by the above trading blocs due to the size and scale of them having a negative impact towards local businesses. If Jaguar – Land Rover are having a positive impact on the economy of a country, increasing the countries revenue through their taxes and increasing employment rates then the government for that country may increase the easiness of movement of goods across the country, encouraging them to continue trading within, benefiting the country as a whole. The World Trade Organisation has a big role in the trade deals of Jaguar – Land Rover as the deals they are working on is worth millions of pounds and therefore involve high risk and liability if they go wrong, this is where the World Trade Organisation will step in, resolve the issue and ensure the deal is still going to go ahead. They will ensure no party is ripped off or miss sold goods and that all parties are aware of the terms and conditions througho ut the deal. The Customs Unions and Common Markets and the EU allow businesses or countries within a certain area free trade and more rights to trade between each other. This would have a negative impact on Jaguar – Land Rover as they would have to pay importation and exportation taxes, increasing the expenditure for each product meaning they can`t be as competitive on pricing as other businesses within the market. The Mercosur won`t have an impact on Jaguar – Land Rover due to the size and scale of them and how the Mercosur id directed at smaller, less established businesses acting as a platform to boost them. Jaguar – Land Rover will not face the competition from this market as the size and scale will counterbalance the benefits that Mercosur provides the smaller businesses with. Conclusion In the above assignment, I have listed, explained and evaluated the impact different common markets have on international trade for the countries involved. I have explained the different reasons for how they work and the benefits they bring. All markets have similar aims and understandings, have the same legal rules and regulations and all believe in fair, free movement of goods or services.