Friday, August 23, 2019

The Implementation of International Treaties (with Specific Reference Essay

The Implementation of International Treaties (with Specific Reference to the United Nations Convention for Biological Diversity - Essay Example ‘Implementation’ in legal terms refer to the different regulations, laws, policies, and various other initiatives and measures adopted for fulfilling the obligations as made mandatory under an environmental agreement (Donald, 2002). Implementation of environmental policies, at a global level, is liable to face more issues than implementing at a national level. This is owing to the fact that global implementation depends on mutual collaboration between different countries that have their own set of political, socio-economic and environmental issues, and are under voluntary obligations to follow the treaties; hence it is difficult to hold them responsible for failure in adhering to and implementing the convention guidelines. States with emerging economies may find that implementation of global environmental policies lacks feasibility. Such countries would prefer to allocate public funds for promoting socio-economic growth, instead spending money on safeguarding and regulat ing environmental resources. In developing nations (often, also observed in developed countries) increasing populations and demands for bettering the quality of life, a pressure develops on state governments to relax environmental protection norms. Keeping the challenges and the need for environmental protection in mind, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was created in 1992 for promoting worldwide sustainable environmental development. CBD is an international body that evolved from the Earth Summit (June 1992), also known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in Rio de Janeiro. The chief aims this Convention are: â€Å"conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding† (Convention On Biological Diversity, 1992, p. 3). The Convention takes into account many issues that range from safeguarding natural resources, to making â€Å"use of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components†(ibid, p. 2), arranging for incentives in cases where there have been sustainable use of environmental resources, and transfer of science and modern technology. In this context, this research paper will study and analyse the 1992 Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD) in order to review the issues faced while implementing global environmental policies. In recent years, countries have become dependent on different international bodies to promote cooperation between States at a global level on various aspects (Lane, 2006). International treaties have turned into foundation stones for various multilat eral regulatory efforts along with being an institutionalised kind of global collaboration, a process based on notions of shared sovereignties (Sharma, Chettri, Gurung and Shakya, 2007). Increased institutionalised collaboration in the recent years has created a complex mosaic of agreements at the global, regional and bilateral levels (Kim, 2003). Even after 2 decades since its inception, CBD continues to be one of the most important global

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